A Beginner’s Guide to Insurance

Having the right kind of insurance is central to sound financial planning. Some of us may have some form of insurance but very few really understand what it is or why one must have it. For most Indians insurance is a form of investment or a superb tax saving avenue. Ask an average person about his/her investments and they will proudly mention an insurance product as part of their core investments. Of the approximately 5% of Indians that are insured the proportion of those adequately insured is much lower. Very few of the insured view insurance as purely that. There is perhaps no other financial product that has witnessed such rampant mis-selling at the hands of agents who are over enthusiastic in selling products linking insurance to investment earning them fat commissions.

What is Insurance?

Insurance is a way of spreading out significant financial risk of a person or business entity to a large group of individuals or business entities in the occurrence of an unfortunate event that is predefined. The cost of being insured is the monthly or annual compensation paid to the insurance company. In the purest form of insurance if the predefined event does not occur until the period specified the money paid as compensation is not retrieved. Insurance is effectively a means of spreading risk among a pool of people who are insured and lighten their financial burden in the event of a shock.

Insured and Insurer

When you seek protection against financial risk and make a contract with an insurance provider you become the insured and the insurance company becomes your insurer.

Sum assured

In Life Insurance this is the amount of money the insurer promises to pay when the insured dies before the predefined time. This does not include bonuses added in case of non-term insurance. In non-life insurance this guaranteed amount may be called as Insurance Cover.

Premium

For the protection against financial risk an insurer provides, the insured must pay compensation. This is known as premium. They may be paid annually, quarterly, monthly or as decided in the contract. Total amount of premiums paid is several times lesser than the insurance cover or it wouldn’t make much sense to seek insurance at all. Factors that determine premium are the cover, number of years for which insurance is sought, age of the insured (individual, vehicle, etc), to name a few.

Nominee

The beneficiary who is specified by the insured to receive the sum assured and other benefits, if any is the nominee. In case of life insurance it must be another person apart from the insured.

Policy Term

The number of years you want protection for is the term of policy. Term is decided by the insured at the time of purchasing the insurance policy.

Rider

Certain insurance policies may offer additional features as add-ons apart from the actual cover. These can be availed by paying extra premiums. If those features were to be bought separately they would be more expensive. For instance you could add on a personal accident rider with your life insurance.

Surrender Value and Paid-up Value

If you want to exit a policy before its term ends you can discontinue it and take back your money. The amount the insurer will pay you in this instance is called the surrender value. The policy ceases to exist. Instead if you just stop paying the premiums mid way but do not withdraw money the amount is called as paid-up. At the term’s end the insurer pays you in proportion of the paid-up value.

Now that you know the terms this is how insurance works in plain words. An insurance company pools premiums from a large group of people who want to insure against a certain kind of loss. With the help of its actuaries the company comes up with statistical analysis of the probability of actual loss happening in a certain number of people and fixes premiums taking into account other factors as mentioned earlier. It works on the fact that not all insured will suffer loss at the same time and many may not suffer the loss at all within the time of contract.

Types of Insurance

Potentially any risk that can be quantified in terms of money can be insured. To protect loved ones from loss of income due to immature death one can have a life insurance policy. To protect yourself and your family against unforeseen medical expenses you can opt for a Mediclaim policy. To protect your vehicle against robbery or damage in accidents you can have a motor insurance policy. To protect your home against theft, damage due to fire, flood and other perils you can choose a home insurance.

Most popular insurance forms in India are life insurance, health insurance and motor insurance. Apart from these there are other forms as well which are discussed in brief in the following paragraphs. The insurance sector is regulated and monitored by IRDA (Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority).

Life Insurance

This form of insurance provides cover against financial risk in the event of premature death of the insured. There are 24 life insurance companies playing in this arena of which Life Insurance Corporation of India is a public sector company. There are several forms of life insurance policies the simplest form of which is term plan. The other complex policies are endowment plan, whole life plan, money back plan, ULIPs and annuities.

General Insurance

All other insurance policies besides Life Insurance fall under General Insurance. There are 24 general insurance companies in India of which 4 namely National Insurance Company Ltd, New India Assurance Company Ltd, Oriental Insurance Company Ltd and United India Insurance Company Ltd are in the public sector domain.

The biggest pie of non-life insurance in terms of premiums underwritten is shared by motor insurance followed by engineering insurance and health insurance. Other forms of insurance offered by companies in India are home insurance, travel insurance, personal accident insurance, and business insurance.

Buying Insurance

There are an umpteen number of policies to choose from. Because we cannot foresee our future and stop unpleasant things from happening, having an insurance cover is a necessity. But you need to choose carefully. Don’t simply go with what the agent tells you. Read policy documents to know what is covered, what features are offered and what events are excluded from being insured.

1. Know your Needs

Determine what asset or incident must be protected against loss/damage. Is it you life, health, vehicle, home? Next determine what kinds of damage or danger exactly would the assets be most probably be exposed to. This will tell you what features you should be looking for in a policy. Of course there will be losses which cannot be foreseen and the cost of dealing with them can be very high. For instance nobody can predict that they’ll never suffer from critical illnesses no matter if they’re perfectly healthy at present.

The biggest mistake while it comes to buying insurance, particularly life insurance is to view it as an investment. Clubbing insurance and investment in a single product is a poor idea. You lose out on both fronts because for the premiums you’re paying more cover could’ve been got in a term plan and if the premiums were invested in better instruments your returns could’ve been several times more.

Be wary of agents who want to talk you into buying unnecessary policies like child life insurance, credit card insurance, unemployment insurance and so on. Instead of buying separate insurance for specific assets or incidents look for policies that cover a host of possible events under the same cover. Whenever possible choose riders that make sense instead of buying them separately. Unless there is a fair chance of an event happening you do not need insurance for it. For instance unless you are very prone to accidents and disability due to your nature of work or other reasons you do not need an Accident Insurance policy. A good Life Insurance policy with accidental death rider or waiver of premium rider or a disability income rider will do the job.

2. Understand Product Features and Charges

The worst way of choosing an insurance product or insurer is to blindly follow the recommendation of an agent or a friend. The good way to do it is to shop around for products that suit your need and filter out the ones offering lower premiums for similar terms like age, amount of cover, etc. All details you need about the product features and charges will be provided on the company’s website. Many insurance policies can now be bought online. Buying online is smarter because premiums are lower due to elimination of agent fees. If buying offline in case of life insurance, tell the agent that you’re interested only in term insurance.

Before you sign on the contract make sure you have understood what items are covered and what items are exempted from the cover. It would be so devastating to learn in the event of damage or loss that the item you hoped to cover with the insurance was actually excluded. So many people rush to their insurers after being treated for diseases only to realize that the particular disease was excluded. Understand details like when the cover begins and ends and how claims can be filed and losses be reported.

Don’t choose an insurance company because your neighbourhood friend is their agent and never let them coax you into buying from them. Insurance premiums run for years and it means a sizeable amount of money. Apart from the premiums charged look for the service provided. When you are faced with a peril you want the claims collection processed to be complicated with non-cooperating staff in the insurance company’s office. Seek answers from people who have had previous experience with the company for questions like how customer friendly and responsive the company is when it comes to handling claims.

3. Evaluate and Upgrade in Time

As you walk from one life stage to another or when the asset insured changes your policies must be reviewed. Perhaps your cover will need to be increased (or decreased) or you’ll need to top it up with a rider. Some instances when you need to review your cover are when you getting married, when you have children, when your income increases your decreases substantially, when you’re buying a house/car and when you’re responsible for your ageing parents.

Fitness Centres – Everyone Can Use Them

Many Americans are obsessed with their health, but the United States remains a country of the obese. Obesity in the U.S. has taken the form of an epidemic, even though more information and more resources are available to us today than at any time in history. Why is this the case?

There are fitness facilities designed to meet the needs of people of all types and ages. Fitness centers exist for older individuals, young people, males, and females. There are fitness centers that are open 24-hours every day, facilities that provide day care and programs tailored to individual needs. It would appear that Americans would not have problems controlling their weight or improving their overall physical fitness with this wide array of choices.

Many fitness facilities even offer their new clients the chance to obtain an initial physical assessment, personalized training, and continuing consultations free with membership. Mothers with small children can take advantage of fitness centers that provide in-house day care facilities. If an individual feels uncomfortable exercising together with members of the opposite sex, fitness centers offer programs and classes for men only or women only.

Organized and instructor-based toning and heart health programs, such as Pilates and aerobics, are also offered by most health facilities. When joining a fitness center or gym, individuals are usually given a schedule of classes that are taught there and the times of the classes. Once a month, the facility will send out a newsletter and calendar providing updates on information about changes at the facility, classes, and other items of interest.

There is no reason that individuals cannot find a fitness center that suits them. The cost of a fitness program is generally not a problem because many employers provide free gym or fitness center memberships to their employees in order to reduce health insurance expenses and time lost on account of illnesses and injuries.

A healthy employee costs his or her employer about $1000 less every year than an employee who does not participate in a fitness program, according to researchers. If the employer does not offer a fitness plan, the monthly cost of membership in a gym will more than pay for itself in regard to maintaining better overall health. Individual medical bills will decrease, as will over-the-counter health needs, because exercise makes a body more capable or warding off germs.

Gyms and fitness centers nationwide are open every day to help people obtain better health and physical fitness. It is the responsibility of each person to take advantage of what they have to offer.

Travel and Tourism Schools – Higher Education Options

By enrolling in an accredited school, college, or degree program you can obtain an education in travel and tourism. This will help you to pursue the career you desire by providing you with the skills needed to succeed. There are numerous higher education options offered by travel and tourism schools that allow you the chance to prepare for the career you dream of. You can find a program that meets your individual career goals and educational needs and request more information about higher education options.

Opportunities to obtain an education in this field are available through various accredited schools and colleges. You can pursue the training that is right for you and receive the certificate or degree that is needed for the career you desire. Different options are available depending on the educational training facility. You can begin the path to a new career by first obtaining an accredited:

  • Certificate
  • Associate Degree
  • Bachelor Degree
  • Master Degree

Once you have chosen the level of education that you wish to receive you can decide on the career that you would like to enter into after graduation. With enrollment in an accredited career training program you can be on your way to an exciting future.

There are a number of career opportunities available to you in the field of travel and tourism. You can work with a variety of people providing information about hotel accommodations, cruises, currency exchange rates, attractions, and much more. Employment opportunities consist of working as a professional:

  • Travel Agent
  • Reservationist
  • Cruise Sales Manager
  • Property Manager

…and much more. Once you have decided on the level of education and career that you wish to pursue, you can begin completing all required coursework and training in order to prepare for entrance into the workforce.

Coursework will be different based on the level of education as well as the career that you have chosen. Most schools and colleges will provide the same accredited coursework but some will differ depending on the career path you have chosen. Topics of study can allow you to learn hospitality, sales and marketing, terminology, computers, reservation, and much more. By receiving an accredited education in these subjects you will be ready to seek the employment you dream of. You will be able to work in transportation, geography, hospitality, and much more. Begin the path to a new career by finding a program and enrolling today.

Accredited travel and tourism schools are available to provide you with the quality educational training that is necessary for a successful career. Different agencies like the Accrediting Council for Continuing Education and Training ( http://www.accet.org/ ) are qualified to fully accredit schools and colleges that provide proof that a quality education will be received. You can research educational programs to find the one that fits your individual needs and begin the learning process by requesting more information. Prepare for the career of a lifetime by finding a school, college, or degree program and enrolling today.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at PETAP.org.

Copyright 2010 – All rights reserved by PETAP.org.

Understanding Marketing Strategy and Why You Should Have One

Many of you understand the basic concept of marketing. However, to ensure we are all on the same page, here’s a brief refresher.

Definition of marketing: Marketing is the essential process of effective communicating the value of your product and or service to your target customer base.

The goal is to peak their interest enough, allowing them to take action and buy your product or service. You are really doing an amazing job if your customer then refers another customer.

If you are a business and you don’t believe in the process of marketing, I highly recommend you re-think your overall business strategy. You absolutely need marketing to attract a relevant customer base to sell your product or service and have a real chance at making a profit.

Now that you’ve taken a brief refresher as to what is marketing and the importance, the next step is developing a marketing strategy.

What is a marketing strategy?

A marketing strategy will help your organization to develop the most optimal process, focusing your scarce resources on convertible opportunities.

Your goal with a marketing strategy is to increase the total sales your organization achieves within the target customer base and establishing a competitive advantage that’s sustainable.

When you are developing a marketing strategy, you have to consider the comprehensive marketing goals of your organization. This includes long-term and short-term marketing goals.

You may have to take small bites before you are able to swallow the amount of success you are sure to achieve with an effective strategy. This information will allow you to develop a complete marketing plan. You can’t get anywhere without a solid plan.

Communication as part of a marketing strategy

In order to develop an excellent marketing strategy, you must conduct research within the target market to know exactly how your customer prefers communication.

Remember, marketing is effectively communicating the value of your product or service to the customer. If you don’t have a clear understanding as to how to best communicate with your target customer, your marketing strategy will be ineffective.

What does this mean? Conduct research to determine if your customers need a visual aide, auditory aide, and or things they can touch and feel in order to become connected to your product or service.

For example, I’m auditory. It’s helpful for products and services I’m interested in to have a jingle to their slogan to help me remember to purchase their item.

When I’m in the store, if I walk past an item I need and I can see the product and then recall the jingle, I find myself making a purchase more times than not if I need the product or service at the time.

In your strategy, you may have to develop a combination to meet the needs of your target market. Nonetheless, discover the way your customer needs you to communicate value.

Product mix as part of an effective marketing strategy

It’s critical to ensure your strategy has a keen focus on the product mix that will cause your customer to react. What does this mean?

A product mix will take into consideration the various lines of products offered to the target market. Let’s take it a step further to ensure an understanding is achieved. For example, if you operate an athletic shoe store serving the entire family, what type of products must you offer to ensure you have a profitable product mix?

Athletic shoes are a given. Then to compliment the shoes, you will offer shoe strings. Another relevant offering would be socks and shoe cleaner. It’s important to anticipate the needs of the target consumer. Athletic shoes require certain attire. Therefore, it makes perfect sense to add athletic apparel to your product mix.

Also, consider the type of athletics your target customers are interested in. Perhaps your customers are runners, basketball players, baseball players, and or football players. You must have a mix that is relevant to your target market.

Your product mix must be right. This will ensure you realize maximum profits from your target customer. You must be willing to put in the work as this knowledge will not come without conducting extensive research.

Why is a marketing strategy so important and why do you need one?

Regardless of the size of your organization, you need a marketing strategy. The benefits far outweigh the time and financial investments to be made to create the most effective strategy.

Change in the industry and target consumer needs

Aside from meeting the needs of your target customer with an effective marketing strategy, you will also learn your strengths and weaknesses as the market evolves.

The goal is to develop a sustainable competitive advantage, thus you need to know what you are good at. The marketing strategy should help you stay current with the changing trends of the industry and the necessary strategic adjustments to be made in order to remain connected with your customer.

For example, if you are a business and you have not already implemented social media as part of your overall marketing strategy, you are behind. Technology is ruling the world we live in. Your customers are online and in-touch via social media. You must get connected to stay connected.

Digital marketing is hot! Many businesses are taking advantage of the mobile lifestyle of their target consumer. Digital marketing allows for a business to advertise on mobile devices, tablets, smartphones, digital billboards (these are really cool), and other digital friendly devices.

This is a huge part of internet marketing and is only going to get bigger. This is a must have in your marketing strategy.

Email marketing is another strategy that is continuing to grow. This is a great way to stay connected with your customer on a permission basis. What does this mean? The customers you send your message to each month, specifically requested to stay in touch. These are high probability sales transactions!

Organizational growth

Your marketing strategy should also help to identify areas for business expansion. Every business has the dream of growing. It’s typically identified in their vision statement.

Your marketing strategy will then direct you in the right direction to help reach the potential new customers you will reach as a result of growth. Growth is great and sustainable if you are able to scale your business in a timely and relevant fashion.

As stated before, you may have general knowledge as to the idea and importance of marketing.

You may even have a basic understanding of a marketing strategy. Now, you understand why it’s critical to have one and you have been armed with ideas to get you started.

ife Cell Skin Solution Be A Natural Beauty All Throughout Your Life Without Spending Thousands Of D

Since it’s considered to be the largest as well as the most unshielded organs in the body, the skin suffers the the most transformation. You should also remember that when she starts to become old, the more that they will experience skin problems. You can blame it over the fact that our body no longer absorbs a lot of our current needs, such as natural supplements. Our faces will then acquire wrinkles age spots, and fine lines, and surely there are more to come. Though it’s our fervent wish to grow old graciously. it’s our wish to always place our confidence high. Hence, we always look for the best antiaging creams.

Sad to say, though, that a lot of these skin care products seldom work. But you should know now that there’s one very essential substitute. You can get yourself Lifecellskin.

Know Why You Should Buy Life Cell Cream

Just in case you have read anti aging cream reviews, the results will tell you that countless women who experimented on Lifecellskin possess extreme respect to the product. The reason is not only limited to the idea that they give you through supple, radiant face. It’s all about the basis of coming up with Life Cell skin care.

Basically, it’s based on case studies

Lifecellskin is based on the ability of science to help preserve your overall health , not to mention stop the deterioration of not only your skin as well as your entire body parts. The product is well-known of nitric oxide as based on a an entry in Nobel Prize , as well as deanol of which its power is proven by testimonials of the top make-up artists of celebrities all around the globe, every ingredient has superior effectiveness and every one of them is actually intended so you can look healthier and definitely more glowing.

Free radicals are prevented with antioxidants.

There’s something you have to keep in mind. Though your creams may are filled with vitamin C, they are still lacking. Furthermore, they utilize ascorbic acid, which can actually be dangerous for the skin. Normal reactions include irritation and itchiness. Lifecell wrinkle cream, on one side, has a pair of potent antioxidants called ascorbyl palmitate which is definitely way stronger than ascorbic acid, plus ubiquinone, which shields the cells from free radicals while reversing the damage that was created

It can make your skin wrinkle-free.

Lifecellskin should be your suggested friend if you want to have smooth skin in an instant. The product possesses special components composed of silica That is based on the light refraction effect. When this happens, the visibility of the wrinkles becomes less the rest of your face becomes more beaming and more radiant.

The silicon crystals are the major secret of well-known classic beauties in Hollywood as well as foreign dignitaries, especially when they should attend an activity among people, then it is nothing but mandatory for them to, appear very presentable for those who consider them as models.

This is the most ideal alternative for those who always inject Botox

If there’s one thing you know to know about botox, it’s the fact that even if they are thought to be the best among the various cosmetic operations that you can obtain almost immediately, they are not only also extremely expensive, as well as may also make you look like a living dead. Moreover, botox injections create an opportunity that a toxic substance is being injected right there on your face. Lifecellskin is enriched with acetyl hexapeptide-3, which already works very similar to the results you get from Botox and that only implies that there is no need for the pain that is often associated with Botox injection.

For so many of us, the cost of the skin care product called Lifecellskin is just plain hype. But if you think that you deserve to assure yourself that you don’t only get your money’s worth, but also enjoy the the countless advantages, you will definitely not be conscious of whether you’re going to be shedding so much of your hard-earned money so you can continue with the protection of skin and body against aging.

Impact Of Nutrition On The National Education And Healthy Growth

Nutrition is an unavoidable factor in education and health growth of a nation. A healthy student is a productive student. Good nutrition is increasingly perceived as an investment in human capital that yields returns today as well as in the future, while bad nutrition is a treat to the nation. The global loss of social productivity in 1990 is caused by four overlapping types of malnutrition â?? stunting and disorders related to iodine iron and vitamin A deficiency â?? amounted to almost 46 million years of productive disability â?? free life nutrition raises returns on investment in education and health care.

A body of literature observed that there is a heavy decline in knowledge in Nigeria from 1980s unlike the past years. Some attributed this decline to the malnutrition during the past civil war. A researcher noted that in the 1980s Nigeria had the lowest number of indigenous engineers of any Third World country. The teaching of English, which is the language of instruction beyond primary school, had reached such poor levels that university faculty complained their inability to understand the written work of their students due to ineffective communication there is a lot of quack graduates and workers in the country. By 1990 the crisis in education was such that it was predicted that in few decade to come, there would be insufficient personnel to run essential services of the country. This calls for a serious attention before the nation losses all her skilled labour force. I have categories these problems into two major nutritional factors, the problem of undernutrition and malnutrition. The purpose of this write â?? up is to review the impact of nutrition on the present and past and necessary steps taken to arrest the situation. It will also provide some relevant solutions to the problem.

NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS:

Nigeria as a country is characterized by two major nutritional problems which includes undernutrition and micronutrient. The rest have little impact and may be reserved for now.
Undernutrition is characterized by inadequate intake of macronutrients. It often starts in utero and may extend throughout the life cycle. It also spans generations. Undernutrition occurs during pregnancy, childhood and adolescence, and has a cumulative negative impact on the birthweight of future babies. A baby who has suffered intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) as a fetus is effectively born malnourished, and has a much higher risk of dying in infancy. The consequences of being born malnourished extend into adulthood. During infancy and early childhood, frequent or prolong infections and inadequate intakes of nutrients (particularly energy, iron, protein, vitamin A, and Zinc) may add to the contribution of IUGR to preschool underweight and stunting. In Nigerian situation, infants after period of exclusive breast feeding are followed up with weaning which consist of pap, akamu, ogi, or koko and is made from maize (Zee Mays), millet (pennisetum americanum), or guinea corn (sorghum spp.). People from low income groups seldom feed meat, eggs, or fish to their infants, because of socio-economic factors, taboos, and ignorance.

In Anambra State, Nigeria, Agu observed that pap contained only 0.5% protein and less than 1% fat, as compared with 9% protein and 4% fat in the original corn. This is usually due to poor processing. Akinele and Omotola investigated the energy and protein intake of infants and children of the low income group. They reported that about one-third to one-half of the infants suffered varying degrees of malnutrition and 10% were wasted and stunted. A more recent Nigerian National Survey conducted by the Demographic and health Survey (DHS) in 1990 placed the proportion of underweight children under five years of age (those below â??2SD weight-for-age ) at 36% including 12% severely underweight. (below -3 SD). The prevalence of stunting (below â??2 SD height â?? for â?? age) was 43% including 22% severe stunting (below â?? 3SD) while the levels of wasting and severe wasting were 9% and 2% respectively. In 1986 in Ondo State, Nigeria, DHS Survey of children aged 6 to 36 months is 28% prevalence for underweight, 32% for stunting, and 7% for wasting.
For adults and older children, it is usually possible to achieve an adequate protein â?? energy intake by increasing the daily intake of starchy foods of low nutrient density. For infants and small children, however, the volume of the traditional diets maybe too large to allow the child to ingest all the food necessary to cover his or her energy needs. A baby aged four to six months would need 920g of corn gruel to meet daily needs of energy (740 Kcal) and protein (13g). This is an impossible task, considering the size of an in factâ??s stomach.

President Chief Olusegun Obasanjo rightly observed that almost half of children ages 7-13 in Nigerian are continue underweight. A lot of children and adults go to bed starved and some take one meal a day which mostly consists of carbohydrates.

Micronutrient is another hard nut to break in the area of nutrition. It is the inadequate intake of key vitamins and minerals. It can be observed both among the rural and urban dwellers in Nigeria. The lack of vitamins and minerals result in irreversible impairment to child physical and mental development. Apart from the indirect effects on the mother, micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy have serious implications for the developing fetus. Iodine deficiency disorders may cause foetal brain damage or still birth (mental retardation, delayed motor development) and stunting. Iodine deficiency in during foetal development and infancy has been shown to depress intelligence quotient levels by 10-15 points. Foliate deficiency may result in neural tube or other birth defects and preterm delivery, and both iron deficiency anemic and vitamin A deficiency may have significant implications for the future infantâ??s morbidity and mortality risk, vision, cognitive development reduce their ability to concentrate and fully participate in school and socially interact and develop. It is on record that 40% of children under 5 years of age suffer vitamin A deficiency. It is the major cause of preventable, severe visual impairment and blindness in children. The most vulnerable is a high percentage of pre-schoolchildren and pregnant women who are anemic. These two nutrition problem are enormous in Nigeria situation have a great impact in the economy and social life of the country.

THE EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON NATIONAL EDUCATION:

Nutrition has a dynamic and synergistic relationship with economic growth through the channel of education. Behrman cites three studies suggesting that, by facilitating cognitive achievement, child nutrition and schooling can significantly increase wages. In utero, infant and child nutrition affects later cognitive achievement and learning capacity during school years, ultimately increasing the quality of education gained as a child, adolescent and adult. Parental education affects in utero, infant and child nutrition directly through the quality of care given (Principally maternal) and indirectly through increased household income. Human capital development, primarily through education, has received merited attention as a key to economic development, but early childhood nutrition has yet to obtain the required emphasis as a necessary facilitator of education and human capital development.

A recent research shows that early childhood nutrition plays a key role in cognitive achievement, leaning capacity and ultimately, household welfare. For example, protein – energy malnutrition (PEM) deficiency, as manifested in stunting is linked to lower cognitive development and education achievement; low birth weight is linked to cognitive deficiencies; iodine deficiency in pregnant mothers negatively affects the mental development of their children can cause delayed maturation and diminished intellectual performance; iron deficiency can result in impaired concurrent and future learning capacity. This goes a long way to prove that nutrition have a great impact to national education as Nigeria is fully experiencing this ugly impact now and in time to come.

THE EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON HEALTH GROWTH:

A health nation is a wealthy nation. Nutrition has a great impact on every nationâ??s growth especially as we can see in Nigeria situation. Inadequate consumption of protein and energy as well as deficiencies in key micronutrient such as iodine, vitamin A and iron are also key factors in the morbidity and mortality of children and adults. Mal-nourished children also have lifetime disabilities and weakened immune systems.

Moreover, malnutrition is associated with disease and poor health, which places a further burden on household as well as health care systems. Disease affects a personâ??s development from a very early age. Gastro-enteritis, respiratory infections and malaria are the most prevalent and serious conditions that can affect development in the first three years of life. In factions affect childrenâ??s development by reducing their dietary intake; causing a loss of nutrients; or increasing nutrient demand as a result of fever.

Malnutrition also plays a significant role in morbidity among adults. The link between morbidity from chronic disease and mortality, on the one side, and a high body mass index (BMI), on the other has been recognized and analyzed in developed countries primarily for the purpose of determining life insurance risk. A study on Nigerian men and women has shown mortality rates, among chronically energy â?? deficient people who are mildly, moderately and severely underweight to be 40, 140 and 150 percent greater than rates among non-chronically energy â?? deficient people.
A lack of micronutrients also contributes significantly to the burden of disease. Iron deficiency is associated with malaria, intestinal parasitic infections and chronic infections. Chronic iodine deficiency causes goiter in adults and Children and also affects mental health. Vitamin A deficiency significantly increases the risk of severe illness and death from common childhood infections, particularly diarrhoeal diseases and measles. In areas where vitamin A deficiency exists, children are on average 50 percent more likely to suffer from acute measles. A UN report states that improvement in vitamin A status have been reduction in mortality among children aged one to five.

EVALUATION OF THE PRESENT AND PAST EFFORTS:

There have been series of bold step toward solution finding by government and non-governmental organizations (NGO) to eradicate mal nutrition and its reacted effect both in the present and past, though some proved abortive due to bad government and economic dwindling which characterized the 1980s, to trace this chronologically. In 1983, the U.S. Agency for international Development (USAID) began providing assistance to the Nigerian Federal and State Ministries of Health to develop and implement programs in family planning and child survival. There focus was in three areas, but especially in the government and social services area. It will also be focused on catalyzing the growth and leverage of NGOs working at the community and national levels in health care support and democratization. The USAID committed and $135 million to bilateral assistance programs for the period of 1986 to 1996 as Nigeria undertook an initially successful structural Adjustment program, but later abandon it. Plans to commit $150 million in assistance from 1993 to 2000 were interrupted by strains in US â??Nigeria relations over human right abuses, the failed transition to democracy, and a lack of cooperation from the Nigerian Government on anti â?? narcotics trafficking issues. By the mid â?? 1990â??s these problems resulted in the curtailment of USA ID activities that might benefit the military government.

In 1987, The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), under the principal Researcher Dr. Kenton Dashiell, Launched an ambitions effort in Nigeria to combat widespread malnutrition. They encourage using nutritious economical soybeans in everyday food. They further said that soybeans are about 40% protein â?? rich than any of the common vegetable or animal food source found in Africa. With the addition of maize, rice and other cereals to the soybeans, the resulting protein meets the standards of the United Nations Food and Agricultural organization (FAO). Soybeans also contain about 20% oil which is 85% unsaturated and Cholesterol free. Though that is nice program for alleviation of malnutrition started at period, a lot of socio economic thorns hindered its proper function during this period.

The world health organization (WHO) in 1987 estimated that there were 3 million cases of guinea worm in Nigeria about 2 percent of the world total of 140 million cases making Nigeria the nation with the highest number of guinea worm cases. In affected areas, guinea worm and related complications were estimated to be the major cause of work and school absenteeism.

In August 1987, the federal government launched its primary Health care plan (PHC), which President Ibrahim Babangida announced as the cornerstone of health policy. Intended to affect the entire national population, its main stated objectives included accelerated health care personnel development; improved collection and monitoring of health data; ensured availability of essential drugs in all areas of the country; implementation an expanded Program on Immunization (EPI); improved â??nutritionâ?? throughout the country; promotion of health awareness development of a national family health program; and widespread promotion of oral dehydration therapy for treatment of diarrheal disease in infant and children.

The president Chief Olusegun Obasanjo in 2002 meeting with the president international Union of Nutritional sciences (IUNS) promised to support a better coordination of nutrition activities and programs in Nigeria, he further said that â??the high prevalence of malnutrition is totally unacceptable to this Government and he assured the IUNS president that he would do everything possible to ensure that resources are available to improve household food security greater access to healthcare services and better caring capacity by mothers including supported for breast feeding promotion.

In the 27th September 2005 Nigerian President Chief Olusegun Obasanjo Lunched the Nasarawa State School feeding program at the Laminga primary school. The program is fully funded and administrated by the state of Nasarawa, which makes it a unique model in Africa today. The epoch making event is in fulfillment of one of the promises of combating malnutrition especially among children whom he observed that many at the age of 7 â?? 13 years are underweight. He further promises to reach out about 27 million children during the coming 10 years. The NAFDAC are also helping in arresting the issue of malnutrition through making and adequate evaluation of food and drugs used in the country.

Other international bodies and NGO like the World Bank development fund; the world health organization (WHO); the United Nations agencies (UNICEF, UNFPA and UNDP); The African Development Bank; the Ford and Mc Arthur Foundation etc. All of them have contributed their own quarters to the improvement of the nationâ??s health and nutrition.

CONCLUSION:

The greatest Solution to nutrition can be captured in this slogan, â??Catch them youngâ??â??, Children are most vulnerable to malnutrition in Utero and before they reach three years of age, as growth rates are fastest ad they are most dependent on others for care during this period. However, nutrition intervention, such as school feeding program which has started in Nasarawa State among children of school age are also important for strengthening learning capacity. Training and nutrition education is very important. Nutrition education can easily incorporate into primary health care programs. The African Child survival program have reduced the high prevalence of malnutrition in many part of cause and an outcome of under nutrition economic losses from undernutrition includes, as percentages of total losses from all causes: foregone human productivity, 10 â?? 15% ; foregone GDP, % – 10 %.

The government should also use mass media to create necessary attention when needed. The government should also try to reach out to people in the rural areas who have lesser access to variety of government interventions. Moreover, improved nutrition is a particularly powerful antipoverty intervention because it can be achieved at low cost and it has a life long impact. Investment in nutrition is one of the best options for economic growth and better social life.

REFERENCES:

1. King J, Ashworht A changes in infact feeding practices in Nigeria: an historical review. Occasional Paper No. 9. London : Centre for Human Nutrition, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medical, 1987.

2. Kazimi J, Kazimi HR. infact feeding practices of the Igbo Ecol Food Nutrition 1979; 8: 111 â?? 6.

3. The United Stated Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. food, the year book of Agriculteur 1959.

4. UNICEF, Strategy for improved Nutrition of Children and women in Developing Countries, New york. 1990

5. ACC/SCN, Fourth Report on the World Nutrition Situation Geneva: ACC / SCN in Collaboration with the International food Policy Research Institute N2000.

6. http ://WWW . UNU. Edu/unupress/food/v191 e/cho 6 . htm

7. http ://WWW. Fao . org / docrep / 033/ x9800e /x9800 e07 . htm.

8. http :// WWW. Online Nigeria. Com/education/ index.asp.

9. Yu xiaodong. Action Neede At the national level, The Chinese experiment SCN News Development In International Nutrition. No. 32, mid – 2006.

10. Armar MA. Maternal energy status lactational capacity and infant growth in rural Ghana: a study of the interaction of cultural and biological Doctoral thesis, University of London, 1989

All- – How to Identify Them and Avoid Harmful Chemicals

One of the main problems you will face when shopping for natural beauty and skin care products is determining which products are truly natural. There are literally thousands of products on the market these days claiming to be “natural.” But just because a product has the word “natural” on the label doesn’t necessarily mean its ingredients are 100% natural and free from synthetics.

It can be quite a challenge to figure out the real composition of the product, even if you are fairly well versed in reading product label jargon.

Unless you are familiar with the scientific names of every single ingredient, it can be quite tricky to figure out which ingredients are synthetic and which are natural. Some manufacturers use different names for the same or similar ingredients. And when it comes to natural ingredients, some use the common name, while others use the scientific names for plant extracts, so you might not even recognize a natural ingredient when you see it. (Helpful Tip: Look for the words “extract” or “oil” following the long scientific name – these will be natural plant extracts.)

Some manufacturers (Burt’s Bees, for example) may list the percentage of natural ingredients right on the label, which makes it a lot easier to judge. But most don’t, and even those that do don’t necessarily include this information on all of their products.

Even more confusing is the fact that some manufacturers change formulations rather frequently. So even if you find a company that does make truly all-, they may unexpectedly change their ingredient list and include synthetic ingredients where once there were none. This can be both confusing and frustrating for consumers, as you may find your favorite all-natural product line suddenly contains chemicals you don’t want on your skin.

So what is a health-conscious shopper to do?

There are a number of databases where you can find information on both man-made chemicals and plant extracts., If you are prepared to put in some time, you can find these online or at your local library. It can be a time-consuming process, at first, to look up every single ingredient you run across that you don’t recognize, but as you become familiar with the terminology, you will start to recognize certain prefixes and words that occur as components of other chemical names. Then when you see a variation of these you will at least know whether they are synthetic or natural.

You can also find databases on cosmetic safety, and natural product rating websites are becoming easier to find these days as natural beauty and person care products become more popular and mainstream.

With a little research and a keen eye, you can begin to differentiate for yourself which products are truly natural, and which ones are deceptively using the “natural” label, while still including potentially harmful synthetic chemicals in their formulations.
 
Copyright Notice: This article is copyrighted by Rose Hillbrand, September 2011. Article may be shared or republished as long as resource box below is included in its entirety.

A Crisis Pregnancy Centre Provides Counselling for Women Facing an Unexpected Pregnancy

It is very important for every woman to maintain her health so that she can stay happy, strong and thriving. Women experience a variety of changes during their lifetimes, and this means they must pay careful attention to their health during these times. If women are pregnant, then she should do whatever it takes to stay healthy. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to stay healthy and thriving while pregnant. Pregnancies can be much unexpected to some women, and this leaves them panicking and unsure of what to do. There is a lot that women must do to stay healthy while pregnant, but not every women knows the steps to take. Fortunately, there are a couple of different services available to help pregnant women maintain their health.

A crisis pregnancy centre is a valuable tool for a woman who is facing an unexpected pregnancy. These centres are non profit organizations that help women find alternatives to abortion. Many women who face unexpected pregnancies get abortions because they are unsure of their options.

Crisis pregnancy centres provide options and information to pregnant women. These organizations are typically run by Christian groups or churches that are pro-life. The services provided by crisis pregnancy centres vary from centre to centre, but some common services are financial assistance, adoption programs and child rearing resources. Most crisis pregnancy centres do not provide medical services, but they typically offer referrals to obstetricians and other health care services. A few crisis pregnancy centres do provide minor medical services such as pregnancy tests and sonograms. Some crisis pregnancy centres provide free sonograms because they believe this dissuades expectant mothers from choosing to have an abortion.

Pregnancy counselling is provided at crisis pregnancy centres, but counselling can also be provided through other resources. Many women choose pregnancy counselling due to an unwanted pregnancy, but services are also available to pregnant women who are suffering from stress and psychological issues. Pregnancy counselling provides psychological health services to pregnant women. Some of these services include introducing women to alternatives to abortion and giving them information on staying healthy while pregnant. Counselling centres provide non biased, medically accurate information to pregnant women in order to help them achieve the best prenatal health possible. Pregnancy counselling centres provide information such as the names of local doctors and hospitals in case a pregnant woman faces an emergency. Some pregnancy counselling centres also provide resources for postnatal care; these resources include treatment for postpartum depression and other psychiatric disorders that come after the birth of a child.

Women can very easily face an unexpected pregnancy, and it is natural for them to feel worried, scared and confused. Fortunately, these great resources are available to every pregnant woman. Whether a woman wants to have an abortion or explore other options, these resources are available to guide them to a choice that is healthy, safe and medically sound. Every pregnant woman should take advantage of these services in order to maintain the best health imaginable.

Accomplish Your Dream Air Travel and Destination!

Isn’t it unbelievable? Yes it might be like a dream for some and a complete hard to accept fact for others, but there are professionals that makes it believable for all!

With surprising combo of cheap flights and affordable accommodation, you can fulfill the desire of visiting your dream destination. Many companies in the market boast of garnering a wealth of experience, and trust and respect of its customers.

Large number of people use travel agencies and online travel portals with the number growing each month has helped the travel portals to serve better and offer the best of air travel and lodging services. The aim is to offer the customers with multiple choices so as to prove that “they care and value them”. A look on the packages will make you realize that they have been meticulously tailored so as to suit the customers’ requirements, wants and needs.

Whether it is a domestic flight ticket to cities like Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, Bangalore or Hyderabad, or international bookings to Singapore, Dubai, Dhaka or London, the travel portal offer unbelievable lowest fares. Not only on air tickets, but for hotel rates too.

Most of these online travel portal will offer rates lower than what the hotels will offer you directly. Even there are many exciting offers on top of lower prices.

Whether you wish to travel in Air India, the national flag carrier of India or the contemporary Kingfisher Airlines, or other major Indian luxury airline, you will get finest flight cuisines, professional services, comfortable seats and amazing flight fares.

To make booking convenient and at your finger tips, some of them offer you the provision of flight reservation via your mobile. Not only this, one can save up to 30-50% on traveling expenses by booking together the flight travel and hotel stay with the travel portals.

The online travel portals provide high quality, efficiency and technology, so that they are always a step ahead to meet their customers’ requirements.

Travel and Leisure Hotels to Fit Your Budget

When it is time to plan a vacation or a weekend trip, you may need to find travel and leisure hotels that will work with your budget. You also want to find choices that offer the amenities you need and the location you want.

The Internet is a good place to locate travel and leisure hotels. Many travel sites offer an excellent starting point, although few have enough information available to make your final decision. However, you can find the names of the travel and leisure hotels that meet your minimum requirements and then visit their home pages individually.

Start by answering why you need to find travel and leisure hotels and for whom. Are you traveling for business or taking a romantic vacation? Who will be in the party? Will it be adults only, or will children be included? If children are going, what are their ages? Will you need child care services? Do you plan to rent a car or walk to local attractions? Once you have defined why you are looking for travel and leisure hotels and who will comprise the party, you can start looking for travel and leisure hotels that will fit those needs.

As you find hotels that might suit your requirements, map out their locations in relation to other attractions you want to visit. Travel and leisure hotels with a slightly higher daily rate may not be the best option if everything else is on the opposite side of a large city, since taxi fares will quickly exceed any savings.

Investigate all amenities offered by all the different hotels. If you work out daily, you might want to find one with a free gym for guests. Perhaps you want a hotel with an indoor pool for taking the children for a swim. You might want to limit your potential travel and leisure hotels to those with 24 hour room service, particularly if you are planning a second honeymoon or romantic weekend. Or if you are traveling on business, you might need on-site cleaning and laundry service.

Certain individuals with health needs may need travel and leisure hotels with specific amenities. For example, those who need to keep insulin refrigerated would probably prefer a room with a mini-fridge. Those with breathing problems might prefer a room on a lower floor just in case there is a power failure or other emergency requiring the use of stairs.

Perhaps you want to narrow your search for hotels to only those with onsite restaurants. This can save time and make it easier when traveling with a large party, since people can eat when they want and there is no need to try to coordinate a meal time for a group.

Once you have a list of hotels that seem like suitable candidates, you can check further on things like cancellation policies, check-in and check-out times and procedures, and parking availability. You may also want to know if there is a club, spa, or convenience store onsite.

With just a little research, you will no doubt find many travel and leisure hotels that interest you. By finding the one with the most qualities you desire, you will make sure that you and everyone traveling with you will have the best trip possible.